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Effects of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors
  • Zhang, Huiyuan1
  • Zhang, Yameng1
  • Chen, Xiaochun2
  • Li, Juhong2
  • Zhang, Ziyang2
  • Yu, Haiyang1
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. , (China)
  • 2 Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control, Shenzhen, China. , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
PLoS ONE
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Volume
16
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244806
PMID: 33417619
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To analyze the effect of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systemically healthy controls (C group, n = 62), T2DM patients not taking statins (D group, n = 57) and T2DM patients taking statins (S group, n = 24) were recruited. In each group, subjects (40-85 years) were subclassified into the h (periodontal health)group, the g (gingivitis)group or the p (periodontitis) group according to different periodontal conditions. 17 cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva samples of each subject were measured utilizing the Luminex technology kit. Further, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PD (probing depth), CAL (clinical attachment level), BOP (bleeding on probing), GI (gingival index) and PI (periodontal index) were recorded. Data distribution was tested through the Shapiro-Wilk test, upon which the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied followed by Mann-Whitney U test and Bonferroni's correction. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 in the saliva of the Dh group were significantly lower than those in the Ch group, while factor IL-4 was higher (p<0.05). Levels of MIP-3α, IL-7 and IL-2 in GCF of the Dh group were considerably higher than those in the Ch group (p<0.05), while that of IL-23 was considerably lower. Compared with the Cg group, levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the saliva of the Dg group (p<0.05). Lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10 were detected in the Sg group than those in the Cg group (p<0.05). At the same time, levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7, IL-13, IL-17, IL-21 and MIP-3α in the gingival crevicular fluid of the Sg group were lower in comparison with the Dg group. In addition, lower levels of IL-4 and higher levels of IL-7 in GCF were identified in the Dg group than those in the Cg group, while in the Sg group, lower levels of IL-4, MIP-1αand MIP-3αwere observed than those in the Cg group (p<0.05). Lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13 and I-TAC were found in the Sp group compared with those in the Cp group. The IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were lower in the Dp group than those in the Cp group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, in the Sp group, lower levels of pro-inflammatory factors IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-21 and TNF-α, in addition to higher levels of anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-5 in gingival crevicular fluid, were identified than those in the Dp group. Higher levels of IFN-γ,IL-1β,IL-2,IL-7,IL-21 and TNF-α and a lower level of IL-5 in the Dp group were identified than those in the Cp group (p<0.05). Moreover, statins were able to substantially reduce PD in T2DM patients with periodontitis, indicating an obvious influence on the levels of cytokines secreted by Th1 cells, Th2 cells and Th17 cells, as revealed by PCA (principal component analysis). Statins are associated with reduced PD and cytokines levels in the GCF and saliva of T2DM patients with periodontitis.

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