1 Changes in the osmotic fragility and critical haemolytic volume of human erythrocytes produced by S-n-decylthiouronium (S-10) and related compounds have been studied. 2 S-10 had a biphasic action on osmotic fragility, protecting erythrocytes against lysis in low concentrations but producing lysis in a concentration of 1 mM or higher. 3 Some lower homologues of S-10 also protected erythrocytes against osmotic lysis, the degree of protection depending on the length of the alkyl chain. 4 Critical haemolytic volume was increased by antihaemolytic concentrations of procaine and chlorpromazine but not by antihaemolytic concentrations of S-10 and related amidines. 5 It is concluded that S-10 and its near homologues penetrate and stabilize erythrocyte membranes, potency increasing with the number of methylene groups in the side-chain up to about ten. The stabilization produced by S-10 apparently differs from that produced by many other lipid-soluble depressant drugs. It may be related to a drug-induced change in the ionic permeability of the membrane.