Bioinspired stem cell-based hard tissue engineering includes numerous aspects: The synthesis and fabrication of appropriate scaffold materials, their analytical characterization, and guided osteogenesis using the sustained release of osteoinducing and/or osteoconducting drugs for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, growth, and proliferation. Here, the effect of silicon- and silicate-containing materials on osteogenesis at the molecular level has been a particular focus within the last decade. This review summarizes recently published scientific results, including material developments and analysis, with a special focus on silicon hybrid bone composites. First, the sources, bioavailability, and functions of silicon on various tissues are discussed. The second focus is on the effects of calcium-silicate biomineralization and corresponding analytical methods in investigating osteogenesis and bone formation. Finally, recent developments in the manufacturing of Si-containing scaffolds are discussed, including in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as recently filed patents that focus on the influence of silicon on hard tissue formation.