Substance P, acting through neurokinin I receptors, is involved in the processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Sensitization of spinothalamic tract neurons occurs to low-intensity stimuli following capsaicin injection. The current study tested the effects of the novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, SDZ NKT 343, on the sensitization of spinothalamic tract cells by capsaicin in monkeys. Spinothalamic tract cells from the lumbar enlargement with receptive fields in the hindpaw were isolated and recorded before and after intradermal injection of capsaicin. The background activity and responses to brushing, pressing and pinching the skin were assessed. Thirty minutes after capsaicin injection there was an increase in background activity and responses to brush and pressure applied to the receptive field. Infusion of SDZ NKT 343 (for 30–45 min) significantly reversed the increased response to brushing without affecting the increased background activity or the increased response to pressure. Thus, blockade of neurokinin 1 receptors reduces the sensitized responses to innocuous mechanical stimuli but not to noxious mechanical stimuli.