Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, which can in part be explained by disturbances in the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems. The effects of rosiglitazone treatment on the fibrinolytic system and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 DM were assessed. Twenty-four patients with type 2 DM and 28 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Plasma global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by hoemostasis model assessment. Patients with type 2 DM then were placed on rosiglitazone (4 mg/day, for 12 weeks) in addition coexistent medication, and baseline tests were repeated. There was no difference between mean t-PA levels of the two groups. PAI-1 levels were higher in diabetic patients than control subjects (p < 0.01). Diabetic patients had lower GFC and t-PA/PAI-1 levels than control subjects (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). PAI-1 levels were positively correlated with waist circumference in diabetic group (r = 0.4, p < 0.05). After rosiglitazone treatment, there was no difference in mean plasma levels of GFC, t-PA, PAI-1 and t-PA/PAI-1 in diabetics. Insulin sensitivity significantly improved after the addition of rosiglitazone treatment in diabetic patients (p < 0.01). The short-term and low-dose treatment with rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients has no effects on the fibrinolytic system, although it improves insulin sensitivity.