The pathological changes of radiation on wound healing in rats were observed by macroscopic, microscopic, and electronmicroscopic examination and detection of collagen types. We found that the wound healing process was obviously delayed by irradiation. First, the early phase inflammatory response was severely inhibited. In particular, the number of infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils was decreased, blood vessels were injured, and hemorrhage was evident. Second, the formation and maturation of granulation tissue were slowed down, fibroblasts were injured, and transcription of types and collagen mRNAs and synthesis and secretion of collagen were reduced. Finally, the reepithelialization process was delayed and the healing time was prolonged.