PurposeTo determine the effects of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) on prostatic elasticity as assessed by Ultrasound Elastography (US-E), as well as to describe the feasibility and role of US-E as a novel tool in both pre- and post-PAE evaluation.Materials and MethodsThis is a prospective, single-center investigation that included eight patients undergoing PAE for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) attributed to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Baseline and 3-month follow-up evaluations were performed and included prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetry, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessment using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire and the IPSS-Quality of life (QoL) item. US-E with measurement of the prostatic Elastic Modulus (EM) was performed before PAE and at 1-month follow-up.ResultsAfter PAE, US-E showed a significant reduction of prostatic EM as assessed in kPa (33.14 vs. 47.24, − 29.8%, p = 0.002) and in m/s (3.75 vs. 4.63, − 19.0%, p < 0.001). Also, the transitional/peripheral zone ratio was significantly reduced by 45.36% (0.53 vs. 0.97, p < 0.05). All eight patients presented with significant LUTS improvement after PAE (p < 0.05 for IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, peak urinary flow rate and PSA).ConclusionsFindings described in this study suggest that PAE significantly reduces prostatic EM, leading to a positive effect on BPH dynamic component related to prostatic elasticity. Also, it features US-E as an additional tool for pre- and post-PAE evaluation, describing a novel indication for this technology.