The within-compound association approach has been proposed as an account of synergistic conditioning in flavor aversion learning. One prediction from the within-compound association approach is that following taste + odor compound conditioning, postconditioning inflation of one element of the compound should increase responding to the second element. In four experiments with rats, the AX+/A+ design was used to determine whether postconditioning inflation of A would increase responding to X. In Experiments 1 and 3, responding to X was significantly stronger after AX+/A+ conditioning, as compared with AX+ conditioning. In Experiments 2 and 4, the specificity of the inflation effect was demonstrated, because AX+/A+ conditioning produced a stronger aversion to X than did AX+/B+ conditioning. Furthermore, it appears that the taste + odor association is symmetrical because inflation of the taste aversion increased responding to the odor (Experiments 1 and 2) and inflation of the odor aversion increased responding to the taste (Experiments 3 and 4).