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Effects of pH and Nutrients (Nitrogen) on Growth and Toxin Profile of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae)

Authors
  • Longo, Sébastien1
  • Sibat, Manoëlla2
  • Darius, Hélène Taiana1
  • Hess, Philipp2
  • Chinain, Mireille1
  • 1 (M.C.)
  • 2 (P.H.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxins
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Dec 04, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxins12120767
PMID: 33291542
PMCID: PMC7761829
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Green

Abstract

Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa . Ciguatera outbreaks are expected to increase worldwide with global change, in particular as a function of its main drivers, including changes in sea surface temperature, acidification, and coastal eutrophication. In French Polynesia, G. polynesiensis is regarded as the dominant source of CTXs entering the food web. The effects of pH (8.4, 8.2, and 7.9), Nitrogen:Phosphorus ratios (24N:1P vs. 48N:1P), and nitrogen source (nitrates vs. urea) on growth rate, biomass, CTX levels, and profiles were examined in four clones of G. polynesiensis at different culture age (D10, D21, and D30). Results highlight a decrease in growth rate and cellular biomass at low pH when urea is used as a N source. No significant effect of pH, N:P ratio, and N source on the overall CTX content was observed. Up to ten distinct analogs of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) could be detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clone NHA4 grown in urea, at D21. Amounts of more oxidized P-CTX analogs also increased under the lowest pH condition. These data provide interesting leads for the custom production of CTX standards.

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