In this study, we investigated the effects of one- and two-staged orchiopexy on testicular volume and serum testosterone levels in cases with high, abdominally localized, bilateral nonpalpable testes. Between March 1996 and April 2001, orchiopexy was performed on 46 testes in 23 patients with bilateral nonpalpable testes. In 15 of the 23 patients, a two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed, and in 8 of the 23 patients, a one-stage laparoscopic orchiopexy was performed. For one patient who lacked both testes, bilateral prosthetic testes were inserted. The patients' ages were between 20 and 23 years (average, 21 years). In the first stage of the two-stage orchiopexy, the spermatic artery was ligated laparoscopically. Six months later, open surgery orchiopexy was performed. Patients were followed for 2 to 16 months (average, 10 months) and were evaluated for testicular atrophy, serum testosterone levels, and complications. In all the patients, the preoperative secondary sexual characteristics and serum testosterone levels were normal. Among the postoperative controls, evaluated at months 3 and 6, one patient's testes were found at the pubic area. Testicular atrophy was not observed in any of the patients, and the serum testosterone levels were in the normal range. In the two-stage orchiopexy group, 5 (33%) of the 15 patients had an average 30% volume decrease, and in the one-stage group, 2 (25%) of the 8 patients had an average 40% volume decrease. In this study, it was shown that either two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy or laparoscopic orchiopexy can be successfully performed in patients with bilateral abdominal testes, and that the testes can be fixed to their palpable original positions without interfering with the secretion of testosterone. Although the results are similar, our experience suggests that single-stage laparoscopic orchiopexy is the preferable method.