The effects of fluorocarbons and chlorinated solvents on the cardiopulmonary system are reviewed. The new information, not hitherto reported, relates to the antagonistic action of inosine, a naturally occurring nucleoside formed in the body by deamination of adenosine. The effect of inosine on methylene chloride toxicity was investigated in open chest dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Methylene chloride (5% in air or 50,000 ppm) elicited a decrease of ventricular contractility represented by the diminished left ventricular (dp/dt)max and myocardial contractile force measured directly with a Walton-Brodie strain gauge arch. Coronary blood flow decreased slightly after exposure to methylene chloride. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate did not change. The negative inotropic effect of methylene chloride was reversed or prevented to a substantial extent by intravenous infusion of inosine (5 mg/kg-min). The effect of the latter compound was also characterized by significant coronary vasodilation. It was shown by the experiments that the cardiostimulatory action of inosine was associated with improved hypoxic adaptability of the coronary blood vessels. In contrast, the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine and isoproterenol) was not accompanied by such a beneficial coronary vascular effect. On the basis of these results, the conclusion has been arrived at that inosine might be recommended as a useful antidote in methylene chloride poisoning in particular, and of poisoning by chlorinated solvents and fluorocarbons in general.