Numerous factors including diet, lifestyle conditions, genetic background and physio-pathological conditions modulate the amplitude and time-courses of postprandial changes in humans. This review focuses on dietary factors affecting postprandial lipemia and lipoproteins metabolism in humans. The known effects of amount or type of fat, carbohydrate, protein and fiber are summarized. Changing the habitual dietary pattern can also alter the postprandial response. This review highlights that postprandial metabolism is a key link between dietary pattern and cardiovascular health or risk.