Ultrastructural changes of the parathyroid glands of melatonin-treated golden hamsters were studied. Many chief cells in the parathyroid glands after 1 hour of administration of melatonin contained poorly-developed Golgi complexes associated with a few prosecretory granules and numerous lipid droplets as compared with those of the control animals. The morphology of the parathyroid glands after 5 hours of administration resembled that of the control animals. Many chief cells in the parathyroid glands after 24 hours of administration had well-developed Golgi complexes and cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum, numerous prosecretory granules, a few lipid droplets and many secretory granules in the peripheral cytoplasm as compared with those of the control animals. The ultrastructure of the parathyroid glands after 48 hours of administration was almost similar to that of the control animals. It is considered that melatonin affects the secretory activity of the parathyroid gland.