We investigated peroxisomal alterations in mice treated with different doses of Lorenzo's Oil (a therapy for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients) for up to 100 days. Hepatic erucic acid levels were already significantly increased 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold in mice treated with 10% and 20% Lorenzo's Oil for 21 days, respectively. No lipidosis was found in liver; myocardium and kidney of any of the treated mice. While hepatic catalase, lauroyl-CoA oxidase and glycolate oxidase, and renal catalase activities were not induced by either diet, myocardial catalase activity was increased in most groups. This suggests that the mechanism of the effect of Lorenzo's Oil in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients may not be a direct effect on the peroxisomes.