A study on peroxyl radical induced oxidation of rat liver microsomal membranes in the presence of different indolinic and quinolinic aminoxyls (Scheme 1) was carried out in order to test their efficiency as antioxidants in lipid and protein peroxidation. The extent of lipid peroxidation was quantified by the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) produced, and the measurement of carbonyl residues was used as an index of microsomal protein oxidation. The results obtained suggest that lipid soluble indolinic and quinolinic aminoxyls are efficient in protecting lipids and proteins of biological membranes against oxidation. The efficacy of these aminoxyls as protectors of lipids and proteins was much higher than the water soluble TEMPOL. Moreover, the hydrophobic aminoxyls were more effective in preventing protein than lipid oxidation at low concentrations (1-20 microM). However, at high concentration (100 microM), lipid as opposed to protein oxidation was almost completely inhibited. The data supports the hypothesis that proteins probably have a different oxidation pattern from lipids.