We purified a polar digitalis-like factor to apparent homogeneity from human urine using inhibition of 3H-ouabain binding to intact human erythrocytes to monitor digitalis-like activity. Since endogenous digitalis-like factor may act as a natriuretic hormone, we tested the binding characteristics of this urine-derived ouabain-displacing compound to the sodium pump in intact renal epithelial cells, in order to assess its potential physiological significance. Cultured canine and porcine epithelial cell lines, MDCK and LLC-PK1, had a high sodium pump density as estimated from 3H-ouabain binding sites. Human urine-derived ouabain-displacing compound showed a dose-related inhibition of 3H-ouabain binding to both of these cells, similar to the inhibition of unlabelled ouabain. These findings indicate that the ouabain-displacing compound is capable of acting on the sodium pump in intact renal epithelial cells and may be the circulating regulator of Na+,K+-ATPase.