This study examined the role of dopamine in modulating the CNS response to cigarette smoking. In a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design, quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) changes and self-reports induced by the smoking of a single cigarette were assessed in 16 smokers following pretreatment with placebo and a dopamine antagonist, haloperidol (2 mg). Following placebo pretreatment, absolute (muV) and relative (%) amplitudes in slow-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1) were reduced and absolute and relative amplitudes in fast-frequency bands (alpha2, beta) were increased following cigarette smoking as compared to sham smoking. Haloperidol pretreatment inhibited the smoking-induced increase in absolute beta frequency. Self-ratings indicated that cigarette smoking induced increases in alertness, contentedness and calmness but not euphoria, and reduced cigarette cravings as compared to the sham smoking conditions. Smoking-induced, alpha2 increments were associated with increases in alertness and decreases in euphoria while beta increments were associated with increased calmness. Smoking-related self-ratings of mood and cigarette acceptability were not altered by haloperidol, but subjects were less content overall in the haloperidol condition as compared to placebo. Discussion of these results focuses on transmitter systems and their relationship to neuro-electric and behavioural activities associated with the smoking habit.