Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with various otolaryngological disorders. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in non-smoking and non-drinking patients. The study population consisted of 36 consecutive non-smoking and non-drinking patients with histologically confirmed SCC of the larynx. As a control, a group of 125 lifetime non-smoking and non-drinking cancer-free subjects were selected. Patients with laryngeal cancer had a higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease than the control subjects (P < 0.0001). Our results confirm the fact that gastroesophageal reflux disease in itself is associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer.