We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 25 mg (0.0025% of the total diet) of a lipophilic fraction (LF) from Panax ginseng on rat platelet aggregation induced by collagen or thrombin, and on blood coagulation. When platelets prepared from 15% corn oil plus LF-administered rats (COLF) were stimulated by thrombin (0.1 units/ml) and collagen (100 micrograms/ml), the cGMP level was significantly increased as compared with those from 15% corn oil only-administered rats (CO). The levels of cAMP in COLF were decreased by thrombin, but was increased by collagen. Furthermore, the levels of both cGMP and cAMP were also increased by the exogenous addition of LF to thrombin- and collagen-stimulated platelets. These results mean that LF increases cGMP directly and cAMP indirectly, and thus inhibits thrombin- or collagen-induced rat platelet aggregation. Both the thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged more in citrated platelet-poor plasma from COLF than in that from CO. The level of lipids such as triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was decreased in serum from COLF more than in that of CO. Thus, these results suggest that dietary LF regulates the levels of cGMP and cAMP, and prolongs the time interval (TT, APTT) between the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Accordingly, our data demonstrate that dietary LF has an antithrombotic effect in vivo.