In this work, the effects of different sources of meat protein on liver metabolic enzymes were investigated. Rats were fed for 90 days with semisynthetic diets in which casein was fully replaced by isolated soybean, fish, chicken, pork, or beef proteins. Then, liver proteomics was performed using iTRAQ and LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that intake of meat protein diets significantly reduced the protein levels of CYP450s, GSTs, UGTs, and SULTs compared to those of the casein and soybean protein diet groups. The total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation values did not differ between four meat protein diet groups and the casein diet group. However, GSH activity in the fish, chicken, and beef protein groups was significantly higher than those of the casein and soybean protein groups. The beef protein diet significantly upregulated the expression of immune-related proteins. The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway was suggested to involve the diet-mediated regulation of biotransformation, inflammation, and redox status.