Deoxycorticosterone acetate, injected daily for 5, 10, 20 or 30 days, reduced the serum potassium levels of rats by about 25%, a decrease that was independent of the treatment period employed. Serum sodium concentrations were unchanged with treatment duration. The potassium concentrations in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were significantly decreased, and those of sodium increased, after treatment. Accompanying these changes of electrolyte concentration, the resting membrane potentials of treated EDL and SOL were hyperpolarized in vivo, and showed depolarization with the decreases of external potassium concentrations in vitro. The mitochondria in the muscles of treated rats were damaged. The degree of damage was more serious in EDL than in SOL and was dependent on the duration of deoxycorticosterone acetate treatment.