In Göteborg, Sweden, 146 children (72 girls) were enrolled in a longitudinal study when they averaged 16 months of age. None of the children had experienced regular out-of-home care yet, but within 3 months, 54 entered center care and 33 entered family day care. Quality of home and out-of-home care environments, child temperament, and the development of verbal abilities were assessed regularly during preschool years. When they were 8 years old (2nd grade), cognitive ability tests were administered to the 123 children (65 girls) still in the study. Tested ability was related to the number of months children had spent in center-based day care before 3.5 years of age. Child care quality predicted cognitive abilities among children who had spent at least 36 months in out-of-home care during their preschool years. Both tested and rated cognitive abilities in 2nd grade were related to earlier measures of verbal ability and to paternal involvement during preschool years.