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Effects of cluster sampling on epidemiologic analysis in population-based case-control studies.

Authors
  • Graubard, B I
  • Fears, T R
  • Gail, M H
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biometrics
Publication Date
Dec 01, 1989
Volume
45
Issue
4
Pages
1053–1071
Identifiers
PMID: 2611317
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

We consider population-based case-control designs in which controls are selected by one of three cluster sampling plans from the entire population at risk. The effects of cluster sampling on classical epidemiologic procedures are investigated, and appropriately modified procedures are developed. In particular, modified procedures for testing the homogeneity of odds ratios across strata, and for estimating and testing a common odds ratio are presented. Simulations that use the data from the 1970 Health Interview Survey as a population suggest that classical procedures may be fairly robust in the presence of cluster sampling. A more extreme example based on a mixed multinomial model clearly demonstrates that the classical Mantel-Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748) and Woolf-Haldane tests of no exposure effect may have sizes exceeding nominal levels and confidence intervals with less than nominal coverage under an alternative hypothesis. Classical estimates of odds ratios may also be biased with non-self-weighting cluster samples. The modified procedures we propose remedy these defects.

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