Increasing evidence indicates that environmental pollutants can change human gut microbiota. Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), considered a major hazard to mammals, is one of the important contaminants. However, little is known about the long-term influence of MC-LR on gut microbial communities. We aimed to investigate the effect of MC-LR on gut microbiota composition and functions by conducting a chronic exposure of male mice to MC-LR via the oral route. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on cecum samples of mice, our results showed that significant changes of species diversity were observed in the gut microbiota of MC-LR-exposed mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities showed that the reduction of the Actinobacteria and Saccharibacteria populations was detected in MC-LR-exposed mice. Collectively, our study highlighted the significant effects of MC-LR on the shift of gut microbial communities which could contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes.