Regularly cycling rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used to study the effects of prolonged administration of LH-RH analogs on the menstrual cycle and the endometrium. According to the treatment, animals were divided into: Group 1, vehicle; Group 2, LH-RH agonist (D-Trp6 LH-RH, 20 micrograms/day); and Group 3, LH-RH antagonist [( N-Ac-D-Trp1,3, D-p-Cl-Phe2,D-Arg6,D- Ala10 ]-LH-RH,200 micrograms/day) for 90 days. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) were measured every second day until thirty days past the discontinuation of drug administration. Endometrial biopsies were obtained on days 10, 40, 90 and 120 and processed for histologic exam and determination of estrogen (E) and progesterone receptors. Animals of Group 1 presented regular cycles, while those in Groups 2 and 3 remained anovulatory throughout the treatment. Animals of Group 2 presented different degrees of endometrial hyperplasia during treatment and animals of Group 3 showed either resting or atrophic endometrium. Administration of LH-RH agonist produced a marked increase in E and P endometrial receptors and the antagonist produced a decrease in P receptors. In both instances, reversal of the effects on the menstrual cycle and in the endometrium was observed 30 days after discontinuation of drug administration.