A series of experiments was undertaken to assess the effects of calcium administration, in vivo, on renin and aldosterone secretion. In the anesthetized dog, renin secretion was decreased by renal arterial infusions of calcium chloride and calcium gluconate; aldosterone excretion was not affected. In the sodium chloride-deprived rat, dietary calcium chloride loading decreased plasma renin activity, whereas calcium gluconate did not. Both calcium salts increased aldosterone production. In the non-filtering, denervated, papaverine-treated dog kidney, renin release was stimulated by renal arterial infusion of verapamil. In the rat, chronic oral verapamil administration decreased plasma aldosterone but had no effect on renin. In humans, chronic oral verapamil decreased aldosterone responsiveness to infusion of angiotensin II. Thus, in vivo renin release is inhibited by hypercalcemia and stimulated by blocking calcium transport; conversely, aldosterone production is stimulated by a high calcium intake and inhibited by blocking calcium transport. These effects of calcium on renin and aldosterone may have implications for understanding the putative relation between calcium and hypertension.