Nonoperated (N-OP) knees were normal in both groups. In the PL-treated group, ACLT knees all exhibited OA changes, which predominated in the medial knee compartment. Furthermore, compared with N-OP knees, the BMD and BVF of ACLT joints were both markedly reduced in medial TP but not in lateral TP. In contrast, in the CT-treated group, cartilage OA lesions of ACLT knees were significantly reduced, and there was no difference in BMD and BFV between N-OP and ACLT knees. These findings suggest that the loss of subchondral trabeculae contributes to cartilage breakdown, possibly by enhancing cartilage deformation on joint loading. By counteracting bone loss, CT reduced cartilage OA lesions, and thus, might be useful in the treatment of OA in cruciate-deficient dogs.