This study investigated the cytoprotective effects of amifostine against the adverse effects of cyclophosphamide relying on ovarian cell death markers and the fertilization rate of the surviving follicles as a late outcome of the study. Combined pretreatment of amifostine with cyclophosphamide enabled partial recovery of antiapoptotic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels while a decrease in expression of BAX and Casp3 were identified. The pretreatment of amifostine to cyclophosphamide significantly reduced the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive primary and preantral follicles (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). These findings were comparable with the results obtained from protein expression of cleaved caspase 3. The fertilization rate showed a significant capability of amifostine to improve fertilization potency of oocytes exposed to cyclophosphamide (P < .01). In conclusion, administration of amifostine prior to cyclophosphamide might serve as a promising protocol to improve female fertility.