Aluminium is used in diverse anthropogenic processes at the origin of pollution events in aquatic ecosystems. In the Champagne region (France), high concentrations of aluminium (Al) are detected due to vine-growing practices. In fish, little is known about the possible immune-related effects at relevant environmental concentrations. The present study analyzes the simultaneous effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on toxicological biomarkers in the freshwater fish species Rutilus rutilus. For this purpose, roach treated or not with LPS were exposed to environmental concentrations of aluminium (100 mu g/L) under laboratory-controlled conditions for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. After each exposure time, we assessed hepatic lipoperoxidation, catalase activity, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. We also analyzed cellular components related to the LPS-induced inflammatory response in possible target tissues, i.e. head kidney and spleen. Our results revealed a significant prooxidant effect in the liver cells and head kidney leukocytes of roach exposed to 100 mu g of Al/L for 2 days. In liver, we observed more lipoperoxidation products and lower endogenous antioxidant activity levels such as glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. These prooxidant effects were associated with a higher oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes, and they were all the more important in fish stimulated by LPS injection. These findings demonstrate that environmental concentrations of Al induce oxidative and immunotoxic effects in fish and are associated to an immunomodulatory process related to the inflammatory response.