Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is common in individuals with insulin resistance, and diets enriched in 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG) may reduce postprandial plasma triglycerides (PPTGs). We enrolled 25 insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals in a double-blind, randomized crossover trial to test the acute and chronic effects of a DAG-enriched diet on PPTG. Participants received either DAG or triacylglycerol (TAG) oil, in food products, for 5 weeks. Fasting lipids, and two separate postprandial tests, one with DAG oil and one with TAG oil, were performed at the end of each 5 week diet period. We found no acute or chronic effects of DAG oil on PPTG. Thus, neither the DAG oil PPTG (h/mg/dl) on a chronic TAG diet [area under the curve (AUC) = 503 +/- 439] nor the TAG oil PPTG on a chronic DAG diet (AUC = 517 +/- 638) was different from the TAG oil PPTG on a chronic TAG diet (AUC = 565 +/- 362). Five weeks of a DAG-enriched diet had no acute or chronic effects on PPTG in insulin-resistant individuals. We suggest further studies to evaluate the effects of DAG on individuals with low and high TG levels.