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Effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions amongst adults attending colorectal and breast cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors
  • Orange, Samuel T.1
  • Hicks, Kirsty M.2
  • Saxton, John M.2
  • 1 Newcastle University,
  • 2 Northumbria University,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cancer Causes & Control
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Nov 08, 2020
Volume
32
Issue
1
Pages
13–26
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10552-020-01362-5
PMID: 33161484
PMCID: PMC7796884
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

Purpose To estimate the effectiveness of tailored physical activity and dietary interventions amongst adults attending colorectal and breast cancer screening. Methods Five literature databases were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of tailored physical activity and/or dietary interventions with follow-up support initiated through colorectal and breast cancer screening programmes. Outcomes included markers of body fatness, physical activity, and dietary intake. Mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effects models. Results Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of 722 participants. Diet and physical activity interventions led to statistically significant reductions in body mass (MD − 1.6 kg, 95% CI − 2.7 to − 0.39 kg; I 2 = 81%; low quality evidence), body mass index (MD − 0.78 kg/m2, 95% CI − 1.1 to − 0.50 kg/m2; I 2 = 21%; moderate quality evidence), and waist circumference (MD − 2.9 cm, 95% CI − 3.8 to − 1.91; I 2 = 0%; moderate quality evidence), accompanied by an increase in physical activity (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.50; I 2 = 0%; low quality evidence) and fruit and vegetable intake (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.64; I 2 = 51%; low quality evidence). Conclusion There is low quality evidence that lifestyle interventions involving follow-up support lead to modest weight loss and increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Due to the modest intervention effects, low quality of evidence and small number of studies, further rigorously designed RCTs with long-term follow-up of modifiable risk factors and embedded cost–benefit analyses are warranted (PROSPERO ref: CRD42020179960). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s10552-020-01362-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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