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Effective amelioration of hepatic inflammation and insulin response in high fat diet-fed rats via regulating AKT/mTOR signaling: Role of Lepidium sativum seed extracts.

  • Abdulmalek, Shaymaa A1
  • Fessal, Marina2
  • El-Sayed, Mohamed2
  • 1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Egypt)
  • 2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt. , (Egypt)
Published Article
Journal of ethnopharmacology
Publication Date
Feb 10, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113439
PMID: 33017634


Obesity-induced insulin resistance and chronic inflammation appears to be the most frequent cause of diabetes and its related metabolic complications; in this way a new therapeutic approaches are needed to prevent the chronic obesity and insulin resistance. Lepidium sativum has been extensively used in traditional alternative medicine for cough, skin disease, liver disorder, diuretic, gastrointestinal problems, hair loss treatment, milk secretion during lactation as well as antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Lepidium sativum have been observed by previous studies, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of Lepidium sativum ethanol and aqueous seed extracts on obesity, oxidative, inflammatory, and insulin sensitivity changes in the liver tissue of high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. The bioactive constituents responsible for these activities have been identified for both extracts using HPLC and GC-MS. Rats were fed HFD for 10 weeks. The obese rats were treated orally with the Lepidium sativum ethanol extracts (LSEE) at dose 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) and Lepidium sativum aqueous extracts (LSAE) at dose 200 mg/kg BW daily for 8 weeks. The findings of the present study pointed out a significant increase in the hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, leptin, and hepatic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity of HFD-fed rats. Consistent with this depiction; we determined the up-regulation of liver inflammatory markers with a significant down-regulation of insulin signaling components phospho-insulin receptor (p-IR), p-AKT, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and p-p70S6K after consumption of HFD for 10 weeks that indicates a deterioration of insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, the phytochemical screening of LSEE and LSAE exhibited positive results for phenolic, flavonoid, lipid, and some bioactive components as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity of both extracts clearly demonstrated their high antioxidant activities. Notably, LSEE and LSAE displayed a wide range of biological features including anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Both extracts significantly decreased high glucose, leptin, lipid profile, liver enzymes levels, and body weight. We also found that LSEE and LSAE significantly alleviated lipid peroxidation and restored the antioxidant enzymes to normal levels. In parallel, the intracellular phosphorylation of classical markers of insulin signaling cascade p-IR/p-AKT/p-mTOR/p-p70S6K was up-regulated in the hepatic tissues of LSEE and LSAE-treated groups. This study provides evidence that LSEE and LSAE might be one promising dietary supplementation that could safely and effectively prevent the early metabolic alterations and weight gain caused by HFD further regulate the activation of insulin signaling pathway beside their powerful antioxidant and low-toxicity properties. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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