Using one parametric variation in solution composition, this paper documents that the surface reactions on bioactive glass (BG) 45S5 are exquisitely dependent upon the modeling conditions. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer complemented with plasma electrolyte and/or serum, and serum. The reacted surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Post-immersion solutions were analyzed for changes in Ca and PO4 concentrations. After a short immersion (3 h), a crystalline, carbonated hydroxyapatite (c-HA) layer formed only in tris. Reaction surfaces of different structure, morphology, and composition were observed after various short and longer term immersions in all other solutions. They comprised two layers with the layer in contact with the bulk consisting mainly of Si; the outer layer, composed of Si, Ca, and P, was amorphous, and had a Ca/P ratio of about 1. Serum proteins adsorbed on the BG surfaces at the early stages of the solution-mediated BG reactions. Formation of a crystalline c-HA layer was delayed up to three or more days in solution with plasma ions. In the presence of serum, only amorphous surfaces composed of Si, Ca, and P were observed for any time up to seven days of immersion. The present data suggest that serum proteins adsorb in tandem with the occurrence of solution-mediated reactions leading to formation of a silica-gel. Amorphous Ca-P phases accumulate in the Si-rich matrix. Furthermore, the present data, in conjunction with the data published before, suggest that physicochemical and cell-mediated reactions occur in parallel to form the glass-tissue interfacial layer.