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Effect of vaccination route (intradermal vs. intramuscular) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using a modified live vaccine on systemic and mucosal immune response and virus transmission in pigs

  • Renson, Patricia
  • Mahé, Sophie
  • Andraud, Mathieu
  • Le Dimna, Mireille
  • Paboeuf, Frédéric
  • Rose, Nicolas
  • Bourry, Olivier
Publication Date
Jan 03, 2024
DOI: 10.1186/s12917-023-03853-4
PMID: 38172908
OAI: oai:HAL:anses-04413214v1
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with worldwide distribution and an enormous economic impact. To control PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection, modified live vaccines (MLVs) are widely used in the field, mainly administered via an intramuscular (IM) route. Currently, some MLVs are authorized for intradermal (ID) administration, which has many practical and welfare advantages. The objectives of the study were to compare the immune responses (systemic in blood and mucosal in lungs) and vaccine efficacy in preventing challenge strain transmission after IM or needle-free ID immunization of piglets with an MLV against PRRSV-1 (MLV1). Methods Groups of sixteen 5-week-old specific pathogen-free piglets were vaccinated with Porcilis PRRS® (MSD) either by an IM (V+ IM) or ID route (V+ ID) using an IDAL®3G device or kept unvaccinated (V-). Four weeks after vaccination, in each group, 8 out of the 16 piglets were challenged intranasally with a PRRSV-1 field strain, and one day later, the inoculated pigs were mingled by direct contact with the remaining 8 sentinel noninoculated pigs to evaluate PRRSV transmission. Thus, after the challenge, each group (V+ IM, V+ ID or V-) included 8 inoculated and 8 contact piglets. During the postvaccination and postchallenge phases, PRRSV replication (RT–PCR), PRRSV-specific antibodies (ELISA IgG and IgA, virus neutralization tests) and cell-mediated immunity (ELISPOT Interferon gamma) were monitored in blood and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs). Results Postvaccination, vaccine viremia was lower in V+ ID pigs than in V+ IM pigs, whereas the cell-mediated immune response was detected earlier in the V+ ID group at 2 weeks postvaccination. In the BAL fluid, a very low mucosal immune response (humoral and cellular) was detected. Postchallenge, the vaccine efficacy was similar in inoculated animals with partial control of PRRSV viremia in V+ ID and V+ IM animals. In vaccinated sentinel pigs, vaccination drastically reduced PRRSV transmission with similar estimated transmission rates and latency durations for the V+ IM and V+ ID groups. Conclusions Our results show that the tested MLV1 induced a faster cell-mediated immune response after ID immunization two weeks after vaccination but was equally efficacious after IM or ID immunization towards a challenge four weeks later. Considering the practical and welfare benefits of ID vaccination, these data further support the use of this route for PRRS MLVs.

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