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The effect of underwater sounds on shark behaviour

Authors
  • Chapuis, Lucille1, 2
  • Collin, Shaun P.1, 3
  • Yopak, Kara E.4
  • McCauley, Robert D.5
  • Kempster, Ryan M.1
  • Ryan, Laura A.6
  • Schmidt, Carl1
  • Kerr, Caroline C.1
  • Gennari, Enrico7, 8, 9
  • Egeberg, Channing A.1
  • Hart, Nathan S.6
  • 1 The University of Western Australia, Oceans Graduate School and the UWA Oceans Institute, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia , Perth (Australia)
  • 2 University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK , Exeter (United Kingdom)
  • 3 La Trobe University, School of Life Sciences, Bundoora, VIC, 3086, Australia , Bundoora (Australia)
  • 4 University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology and the Centre for Marine Science, Wilmington, NC, 28403, USA , Wilmington (United States)
  • 5 Curtin University, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Perth, WA, 6102, Australia , Perth (Australia)
  • 6 Macquarie University, Department of Biological Sciences, North Ryde, NSW, 2109, Australia , North Ryde (Australia)
  • 7 Oceans Research Institute, Mossel Bay, 6500, South Africa , Mossel Bay (South Africa)
  • 8 South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa , Grahamstown (South Africa)
  • 9 Rhodes University, Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa , Grahamstown (South Africa)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Scientific Reports
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
May 06, 2019
Volume
9
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43078-w
Source
Springer Nature
License
Green

Abstract

The effect of sound on the behaviour of sharks has not been investigated since the 1970s. Sound is, however, an important sensory stimulus underwater, as it can spread in all directions quickly and propagate further than any other sensory cue. We used a baited underwater camera rig to record the behavioural responses of eight species of sharks (seven reef and coastal shark species and the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias) to the playback of two distinct sound stimuli in the wild: an orca call sequence and an artificially generated sound. When sounds were playing, reef and coastal sharks were less numerous in the area, were responsible for fewer interactions with the baited test rigs, and displayed less ‘inquisitive’ behaviour, compared to during silent control trials. White sharks spent less time around the baited camera rig when the artificial sound was presented, but showed no significant difference in behaviour in response to orca calls. The use of the presented acoustic stimuli alone is not an effective deterrent for C. carcharias. The behavioural response of reef sharks to sound raises concern about the effects of anthropogenic noise on these taxa.

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