Vascular occlusive diseases affect brain blood flow, brain metabolism and are associated with arterial ischemic stroke. This study was designed to measure the brain blood flow velocity, brain oxygenation, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, and cell free hemoglobin at pre- and post-exchange red cell transfusion in an 18 year old male patient with sickle cell disease and moyamoya syndrome (MMS). Exchange transfusion increased cerebral oxygen saturation 12%, total hemoglobin concentration 2%, hemoglobin AA 80%, and reduced sickle (SS) hemoglobin 12%, arterializations 33%, and cell free hemoglobin 33%. Brain blood flow velocity values were unaffected by transfusion. These observations suggest that exchange transfusion increases the hemoglobin carrying capacity and reduces sickle hemoglobin and shunting of blood, which may improve the peripheral and cerebral oxygenation. Transfusion did not affect the brain blood flow in this patient. Therefore the risk of transient ischemic attack and arterial ischemic stroke from mms still exist.