BackgroundPulpal and periodontal healing are two main concerns of delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical and systemic application of tetracyclines on pulpal and periodontal healing after tooth replantation.MethodsA comprehensive electronic search was conducted in six databases. This systematic review was carried out according to Cochrane Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.ResultsAfter exclusion of 246 irrelevant papers, 14 animal studies and one human study were included in this review. The human study showed that avulsed permanent teeth treated with doxycycline did not show a better clinical outcome for pulp and periodontal healing compared with treatment with normal saline. As for animal studies, significant more pulpal healing was observed in immature teeth treated with topical doxycycline in two researches, while another one study showed that there is no difference between teeth treated with normal saline and teeth treated with doxycycline. Systemic doxycycline exerted no significant effect on pulpal revascularization illustrated by one research. Only one out of four articles illustrated the positive effect of systemic tetracyclines on periodontal healing. One paper reported that intracanal application of demeclocycline promoted favorable periodontal healing. Two articles showed topical doxycycline contributed to favorable periodontal healing, while five studies showed no significant effect of topical tetracyclines on periodontal healing.ConclusionsAs a result of data heterogeneity and limitations of the studies, the effect of topical or systemic application of tetracyclines on pulpal and periodontal healing is inconclusive. More studies are required to get more clinically significant conclusions.