Interpersonal brain synchrony (IBS) during cooperation has not been systematically investigated. To address this research gap, this study assessed neural synchrony during a cooperative jigsaw puzzle solving task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. IBS was measured for successful and failed tasks in 31 dyads in which the partners were familiar or unknown to each other. No significant difference in IBS was observed between the different types of cooperative partnership; however, stronger IBS within regions of the pars triangularis Broca’s area, right frontopolar cortex, and right temporoparietal junction was observed during task success. These results highlight the effect of better task performance on cooperative IBS for the first time and further extend understanding of the neural basis of cooperation.