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Effect of switching glatiramer acetate formulation from 20 mg daily to 40 mg three times weekly on immune function in multiple sclerosis

Authors
  • Ito, Kouichi
  • Ito, Naoko
  • Yadav, Sudhir K
  • Suresh, Shradha
  • Lin, Yong
  • Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl
Type
Published Article
Journal
Multiple Sclerosis Journal - Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Publisher
SAGE Publications
Publication Date
Jul 28, 2021
Volume
7
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/20552173211032323
PMID: 34377526
PMCID: PMC8330487
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Original Research Paper
License
Unknown

Abstract

Background Many RRMS patients who had been treated for over 20 years with GA 20 mg/ml daily (GA20) switched to 40 mg/ml three times-a-week (GA40) to reduce injection-related adverse events. Although GA40 is as effective as GA20 in reducing annualized relapse rate and MRI activity, it remains unknown how switching to GA40 from GA20 affects the development of pathogenic and regulatory immune cells. Objective To investigate the difference in immunological parameters in response to GA20 and GA40 treatments. Methods We analyzed five pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-23, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α), and three anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-13, and IL-27) in serum. In addition, we analyzed six cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-27) in cultured PBMC supernatants. The development of Th1, Th17, Foxp3 Tregs, M1-like, and M2-like macrophages were examined by flow cytometry. Samples were analyzed before and 12 months post switching to GA40 or GA20. Results Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable between the GA40 and GA20 groups. Development of Th1, Th17, M1-like macrophages, M2-like macrophages, and Foxp3 Tregs was also comparable between the two groups. Conclusions The immunological parameters measured in RRMS patients treated with GA40 three times weekly are largely comparable to those given daily GA20 treatment.

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