To evaluate the influence of supportive treatment (SPT) during a maintenance period after implant placement on implant survival rate (SR) and incidence of peri-implant diseases. A systemic literature search for studies published up to June 2018 was conducted by two independent reviewers using Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central databases. Clinical controlled trials (CCT) involved in SPT protocol with more than 1-year follow-up were included. Quantitative meta-analyses were carried out to analyze the risk ratio (RR) of SR, the incidence of peri-implantitis, and peri-implant mucositis between SPT and non-SPT groups. Any potential confounding factors were investigated using meta-regression. Nine CCTs fulfilled the criteria. To evaluate the influence of SPT on SR, peri-implantitis, and peri-implant mucositis, six of nine, three of nine, and three of nine articles were included in further meta-analysis, respectively. SPT group significantly showed higher SR (RR: 1.10; p < 0.001), lower prevalence of peri-implantitis (RR: 0.25; p < 0.001) and peri-implant mucositis (RR: 0.57; p < 0.001) than the non-SPT group. Meta-regression of the selected studies failed to find an association between SR, peri-implantitis, and peri-implant mucositis and confounding factors: application of chemical agents and the frequency of SPT. SPT can potentially improve peri-implant health in terms of SR, peri-implantitis, and peri-implant mucositis. Additionally, the correlation in recall interval and adjunctive use of chemical agents during SPT to peri-implant diseases and implant loss could not be found. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.