Growth deficits associated with lead exposure might be ameliorated by chelation. We examined the effect of succimer on growth in 780 children 12-33 months old who had blood lead levels of 20-44 microg/dL and were randomized to receive up to three 26-day courses of succimer or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind trial. The difference in changes in weight and height between succimer and placebo groups at 1-34 months was calculated by fitting cubic splines. The difference in height change in children on succimer compared with placebo was -0.27 cm [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -0.42 to -0.11] from baseline to 9 months, when 99% of children had completed treatment, and -0.43 cm (95% CI, -0.77 to -0.09) during 34 months of follow-up. Similar differences in weight gain were not statistically significant. Although succimer lowers blood lead in moderately lead-poisoned children, it does not have a beneficial effect on growth and may have an adverse effect.