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The effect of smoking on intestinal inflammation: what can be learned from animal models?

Authors
  • Verschuere, Stephanie1
  • De Smet, Rebecca
  • Allais, Liesbeth
  • Cuvelier, Claude A
  • 1 Department of Pathology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. [email protected] , (Belgium)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis
Publisher
Oxford University Press (OUP)
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2012
Volume
6
Issue
1
Pages
1–12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.crohns.2011.09.006
PMID: 22261522
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that smoking is the most important environmental risk factor in Crohn's disease while it positively interferes with the disease course of ulcerative colitis. However, the underlying mechanisms through which smoking exerts this divergent effect and affects pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease are largely unknown. Animal smoke models are good models to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke on intestinal physiology and inflammation. They enable one to explore the interaction of smoke components and the gut on cellular and molecular level, clarifying how smoking interferes with normal gut function and with disease course in inflammatory conditions. This review describes the currently used animal models for studying the impact of cigarette smoke on the intestinal tract. We first discuss the different methods for simulation of smoking. Furthermore, we focus on the effect of smoke exposure on normal gut physiology and immunology, on experimental (entero)colitis, and on inflammation-induced neoplasia. Based on this current knowledge, a hypothesis is formulated about the mechanisms through which cigarette smoke interferes with the gut in normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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