To define the effect of short-term rosuvastatin treatment on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the database of controlled clinical trials in the Rosuvastatin Clinical Development Program was reviewed. Thirteen studies comprising 3,956 rosuvastatin-treated patients were selected based on a serum creatinine measurement at 6 or 8 weeks after initiation of rosuvastatin treatment, randomization to approved and marketed rosuvastatin doses (5 to 40 mg), and unchanged rosuvastatin dose from treatment initiation (baseline) through 6 to 8 weeks of treatment. eGFR was determined with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. eGFR significantly increased for each dose of rosuvastatin individually and for all doses combined compared with baseline (range +0.9 to +3.2 ml/min/1.73 m2). Further analysis of 5 blinded, placebo-controlled trials comprising 525 patients showed an increase in eGFR of +0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval +0.1 to +1.5) for all rosuvastatin-treated patients, which was significantly different from baseline (p <0.04) and from a change of -1.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 in the placebo-treated patients (95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.5, p <0.001). The increase in eGFR for rosuvastatin-treated patients was consistent across all major demographic and clinical subgroups of interest, including patients with baseline proteinuria, baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and in patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. In conclusion, these results are consistent with previous rosuvastatin studies that showed an upward trend in eGFR with long-term treatment (> or =96 weeks) and with the hypothesis that statins may have pleiotropic mechanisms of action that include beneficial renal effects.