Sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment are likely to influence sward dynamics and demography of grasslands whose most species show the ability of vegetative propagation. Successful seedling recruitment may be limited by seed resource and/or availability of establishment sites. There are several steps from adult plants to well-established seedlings. Seed production results from the resource sharing between vegetative and reproductive growth and from the trade-off between seed number and mean seed mass. Seeds may be dispersed by wind or by the animals, while seedling recruitment will also depend on the availability of establishment sites. Botanical composition, grassland management and soil-climate conditions will influence these steps. management may be adapted to increase seed resource, including over-seeding, the number of open gaps in the canopy and seedling growth. the animals may play an important role as they may influence the availability of seeds, disperse them and open gaps in the canopies.