The role of sex-steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), on the humoral immune parameters of the teleost gilthead seabream Sparus aurata was studied attempting to deepen on the knowledge of the immune-reproductive system interactions. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with coconut oil containing different dosages of T (0, 2, or 5 microg g(-1) body weight [bw]) or E2 (0, 1, or 2 microg g(-1) bw) and sampled 1, 3, and 7 days later. Hormonal levels and immune parameters (complement, peroxidase and antiprotease activities and IgM levels) were determined in plasma. Plasma hormone levels peaked at 1 day post-injection decreasing thereafter. Treatment with T significantly increased both complement and peroxidase activities after 3 days of injection but antiprotease activity and IgM levels remained unchanged. Treatment with E2 enhanced complement activity 1 day post-injection while decreased it after 3 and 7 days. However, peroxidase activity increased at 3 and 7 days post-injection while total IgM levels decreased. Implications of T and E2 in the immune-reproductive system interactions were discussed.