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Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum

Authors
  • Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi1, 2
  • De Saeger, Sarah1,
  • De Boevre, Marthe
  • Adegoke, Gabriel Olaniran
  • Audenaert, Kris
  • Croubels, Siska3
  • Antonissen, Gunther3, 4
  • Vermeulen, Karel
  • Gbashi, Sefater1
  • Njobeh, Patrick Berka1
  • 1 (S.G.)
  • 2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwara State University, Malete P.M.B. 1530, Kwara State, Nigeria
  • 3 (G.A.)
  • 4 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxins
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 04, 2021
Volume
13
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxins13010027
PMID: 33406676
PMCID: PMC7823315
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Green

Abstract

Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect of five nixtamalization cooking ingredients (wood ashes, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and calcium chloride) on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in artificially contaminated maize and sorghum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All tested cooking ingredients effectively reduced levels of mycotoxins in the contaminated samples with reduction initiated immediately after the washing step. Except for the calcium chloride nixtamal , levels of fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in the processed sorghum nixtamal samples were below the limit of detection. Meanwhile, the lowest pH values were obtained from the maize (4.84; 4.99), as well as sorghum (4.83; 4.81) nejayote and nixtamal samples obtained via calcium chloride treatment. Overall, the results revealed that the tested cooking ingredients were effective in reducing the target mycotoxins. In addition, it pointed out the potential of calcium chloride, though with reduced effectiveness, as a possible greener alternative cooking ingredient (ecological nixtamalization) when there are environmental concerns caused by alkaline nejayote .

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