The most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth are extraoral dry time and storage media used before replantation. Studies have analyzed different storage media to determine the ideal solution to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Propolis has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and has been previously suggested as a storage medium. The purpose of this study was to assess not only cell viability but also physiological health of PDL cells after exposure to propolis. PDL cells were exposed to different concentrations of propolis or Hanks balanced salt solution, and the apoptotic levels were determined using apoptosis assay and flow cytometry. Additional cell viability and proliferation were analyzed by XXT assay in dry and wet conditions. Propolis not only decreased apoptosis but also increased the metabolic activity and proliferation of PDL cells. This study suggests that propolis is a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.