The efficacy of combined treatment with praziquantel and artemether against infection with Schistosoma japonicum was tested on infected rabbits, in which 7-to 14-day-old schistosomules and 42-day-old adult schistosomes were simultaneously present. Rabbits were treated orally with praziquantel and artemether using various dosages and schedules. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by estimating the mean total worm burden (TWB) and female worm burden (FWB) and comparing them with the worm burdens in control animals treated with praziquantel or artemether alone. When the rabbits received praziquantel in a single dose (50 mg/kg), or daily for 2-6 days (30-60 mg/kg), the TWB was reduced by 28-66% and the FWB by 26-65%. In rabbits treated with artemether the reductions were 44-56% and 35-54%, respectively. Treatment with praziquantel in combination with artemether resulted in a significantly greater reduction of worm burden than was found for the groups treated with praziquantel or artemether alone, using the same dosages and schedules. TWB was reduced by 79-92%, and FWB by 80-93%. The results demonstrated that when rabbits infected simultaneously with schistosomules and adult schistosomes were treated with praziquantel in combination with artemether, the effects of the individual drugs could be increased significantly.