Mice on an atherogenic diet for 40 days show a decrease in brain content of catecholamines, cyclic AMP and in dopamine degradation, and modification of the glycolytic pathway. The metabolic changes are paralleled by changes in behaviour, i.e. decrease in spontaneous motor activity and in conditioning avoidance response. The decrease in dopamine degradation and in behaviour parameters is partly due to the propylthiouracil present in the diet. Endovenous treatment with sonicated dispersions of bovine brain phospholipids induces a modification in the parameters of behaviour and metabolism. The possibility is discussed that some of the defects arising during the atherogenic diet are related with the establishment of a hypoxic state.