The effects of locomotor training (LT) on skeletal muscle after peripheral nerve injury and acetylcholinesterase deficiency are not well documented. We determined the effects of LT on mouse soleus muscle performance after sciatic nerve transection with excision (full and permanent denervation), nerve transection (partial functional reinnervation), nerve crush (full denervation with full functional reinnervation), and acetylcholinesterase deficiency (alteration in neuromuscular junction functioning). We found no significant effect of LT on the recovery of soleus muscle weight, maximal force in response to muscle stimulation, and fatigue resistance after nerve transection with or without excision. However, LT significantly increased soleus muscle fatigue resistance after nerve crush and acetylcholinesterase deficiency. Moreover, hindlimb immobilization significantly aggravated the deficit in soleus muscle maximal force production and atrophy after nerve crush. LT is beneficial, and reduced muscle use is detrimental for intrinsic muscle performance in the context of disturbed nerve-muscle communication. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.